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Patan Durbar Square

Patan Durbar Square

Patan Durbar Square is a UNESCO World Heritage site (1979 AD), 7 km south of Kathmandu. Patan translates to beautiful city with the historical names Yupagram, Yala, Lalita Patan, and Mangal. King Veer Dev founded the town in the 3rd century AD. The palace and temple complex have historical and cultural monuments from the 2nd century BC to the 18th century AD. The formal Palace Square entrance fees are 1000 Rupees for foreigners and 250 Rupees for SAARC tourists. 

Patan Durbar Square is filled with Hanuman, Narasingha, Ganesha statue, Radha Krishna Temple, Harishankar Temple, Taleju Bell (1737), Degu Taleju (1641), Vishwanath Temple (1627), Bhimsen Temple (1681). There is a Char Narayan Temple with erotic carvings (1566 ), a Narashingha Temple (15th-century), a Buddhist Temple and King Yoga Narendra Malla with two queens on the stone column in the centre. Northeast of the square is a Mani Dhara (570) and Mani Mandap (1694), the coronation place of Malla Kings, Mani Ganesh (17th century). The shikhara-style Krishna Temple (1646) has 21 golden pinnacles depicting Ramayana, Mahabharata story, built by Siddhi Narasingha Malla. Garuda (man-bird) is a transport of God Krishna on a stone pillar (1646) in front of the temple.

East of the square has three different Chowks (courtyards). King Srinivas Malla constructed the Mul Chowk (1671). The Chowk has a Durga Temple, River Goddess (Yamuna and Ganga), altar, Taleju Temple and Bhandarkhal Garden. Sundari Chowk (1647) forms a meditation rock, golden spout (Tusha Hiti, impressive wood, bronze and stone carvings was built by King Siddhi Narasingh Malla. Mani Keshav Narayan Chowk (1680) with a Narayan Temple set in Patan Museum, the former Royal Palace has a golden window (Shristikanta Lokeshwar) and a golden door (Goddess Taleju). The museum displays Hinduism and Buddhist arts and artefacts with information. 

The well-known Golden Temple is 300 meters northwest of the square. The pagoda-style Hiranya Varna Maha Vihar is the 12th century built by King Bhaskar Varma. Kumbeshwar Temple (1392) is a five-roof, pagoda-style Shiva temple 400 meters northwest of the square, built by Jaya Bhim during the King Jayasthiti Malla. The annual Janai Purnima festival celebrates the full moon day of August. The Banglamukhi Goddess temple is near. The four Ashokan Stupas  (250 BC) are east, west, north and south in Patan (Imadole, Kupondole, Sankhamul, and Lagankhel) founded by the Indian Emperor Ashoka. North Ashokan Stupa, Shikubahi Uma Maheshwar Temple (6th century) with Jagat Narayan Temple (1853) is 10 minutes away to the northeast of the Kumbeshwar Temple. 

Mahaboudha Temple (16th century) is thousands of Buddha statues on bricks built by Abay Raj. It is 12 minutes southeast of the square. Rudra Varna Mahavihar (6th century) is near was created by Lichhavi King Shiva Dev. Red Machhindranath Temple (1408) is 300 meters south of the square. Jawalakhel Central Zoo with a lake (17th century), founded by King Siddhi Narasingh Malla, is 30 minutes southwest of the Patan Durbar. It has a Royal Bengal Tiger, elephant, bird, Crocodile, one-horn rhino, monkey and bear. Lalitpur is famous for statue-maker shops, painting schools, Tibetan carpet factories and industrial areas.